We all want healthy forest ecosystems, clean water and vibrant communities. We can achieve these goals through sustainable forest management(SFM). However, we need to continue to push the boundaries of what SFM is in order to ensure we don’t miss something. This means constant research, consultation and not being afraid to change how we do things in order to protect all values for all people, for ever. Indigenous people have been on this continent for thousands of years living with the land, instead of trying to tame it. Indigenous values have been all but lost in our society, and indigenous people have knowledge to offer that could help us better define SFM. We need to find a way to help indigenous communities feel heard and respected, so they can feel safe to share and help us all move towards a better system of forest management. Fabian is one man trying to bridge that gap between the western model and the indigenous one, to help us find a new and better path forward together.
Fire is a crucial part of the boreal forest. Without it the whole system falls apart. First Nations people have been using fire as a tool to manage the forest and help maintain ecosystem health for thousands of years. They would regularly burn the landscape, under safe and manageable conditions, in order to achieve very specific and controlled outcomes. These outcomes include habitat creation, growth of specific plants for medicine or food production, improved grazing land for ungulates, etc. Along with many environmental benefits that existed from indigenous burning, there was also a deeply cultural aspect. Indigenous people say that burning provided them with a connection to the land that was directly tied to community health. With burning outlawed the last century, many communities have lost the ability to connect to their culture and feel empowered by their ancestral knowledge. Amy Cardinal Christianson is an indigenous fire researcher trying to get cultural burning back on the land to rejuvenate forest health and ultimately for the benefit of all people.
We don’t know a planet like this. There is more CO2 in the atmosphere today then there has ever been in the entirety of human evolution, which is over 3 million years. This means that the greenhouse effect is in full swing and even if we stopped greenhouse gases today, the earth would continue to warm beyond what we have ever known. Adaptation is a necessity, and we need to be ready. It’s not the end of the world, but it is the end of the world we know. Jason Edwards has a positive and hopeful message about how we can begin to adapt to our changing environment. He has spent a long time collaborating and researching adaptation and how best to go about it. We have the tools and knowledge to make this happen, so let’s get started.
I thought we could take a look back into our history to see how we got here, and perhaps tease out what might happen next. I wanted to talk to someone with first hand experience with the evolution of sustainability and environmental stewardship. Luckily, I knew a guy. Peter Murphy is a legend in environmental management circles. He has devoted the last 70 some odd years of his life to environmental integrity. He even remembers when the word “sustainability” was first coined. He has a wealth of knowledge and he is worth listening to. Without him, we would likely not be where we are today in regards to sustainability.
Wildfires are becoming more and more of a problem for modern society. In the past decade, we have seen an unprecedented increase in the number of catastrophic fires. Climate change has lengthened the fire season, increased temperatures, and increased severity and longevity of droughts. These new conditions drastically increases the probability of catastrophic fires, as is evident by the community destroying fires we have seen in the last 8 years in California, British Columbia and Alberta. Firesmart is a way to protect your home and community from these threats…and it works. Laura Stewart is the President of Firesmart Canada and came on to give her thoughts on the issue, and what people can do to prepare for wildfires.
Chemicals used on our crops and forests are of huge concern to society in general. Especially after problematic pesticides, like DDT, nearly wiped out bald eagles in the United States some decades ago. Now we are ever on the lookout for the next culprit. Which chemical will be the next big problem that affects our children’s development, our water, environment? Luckily for us, after the DDT scare, science and regulators buckled down big time to prevent anything like that from happening again. There is now a rigorous set of guidelines and regulations to ensure anything we put on the landscape is healthy, safe, and will have no adverse unintended affects. Scientists developing these chemicals spend decades ensuring they are safe before they are even considered for commercial use. We discussed why we use chemicals, how we know they are not only safe but could be considered to be the most environmentally supportive system, and the problems that would arise if we stopped using them completely. I know you are shaking your head, thinking “this guy is full of it”…I promise that this is the truth, backed by science. Don’t believe me, fine. At least listen to what the environmental toxicologist has to say, he studies this for a living.
Wildlife conservation is often a sad story. We hear that some species has been pushed to the edge of extinction because of us, and our lack of foresight or empathy. Until recently, Trumpeter Swans were not very different. Through nearly a century of effort, cross border partnerships, intense research and passionate nature lovers, we were able to make a difference in this species’ future on the planet. Mark Heckbert has been leading this battle in Alberta for over a decade and has a true passion for his work. His understanding and appreciation for this amazing species makes him the perfect person to discuss their resurrection, from less then 100 swans to the many thousands that exist today. This is a true conservation success story that would not be possible without generations of hard work and dedication in, what seemed to be, insurmountable odds.
Humans are naturally curious beings. We want to know why, how and what is going on in the world around us. Science is the only tool we have to help us sort out the truth from the misconceptions. The scientific community is ruthless in its scrutiny and it will not ease up on any research that doesn’t hold up to logic. Science doesn’t care how you feel or what your bias’ may be, all logical fallacies are inevitably found out and exposed. Science leaves us with the truth as best we can measure and observe it using the technology of our time. The laws of nature are fixed, and our understanding of them is ever moving forward toward a complete comprehension. But only through science are such discoveries possible. Matthew Pyper came on to discuss the scientific method and how we might start to think about how we communicate science, and how we can bring more people into its understanding.
We buy so much of our food. As a result, we have next to no connection to what we put into our bodies. Where did it come from, how was it growing, what was next to it, what was the weather like, what did we have to go through to get it. The forest is a natural grocery store. We can forage leafy greens, berries, mushrooms, root vegetables, eat meat that we harvested ourselves and we know exactly where it all came from. There is now a story that goes with that food that makes you more connected to the landscape and more appreciative of the calories that will become your own body. Kelly came on to discuss all sorts of things we can forage from our forests.
Best two books for foraging food in western Canada according to Kelly:
Plants of the Western Boreal Forest & Aspen parkland by Johnson, Kershaw, MacKinnon and Pojar
Mushrooms of Western Canada by Helen M.E. Schwalkijk-Barendsen
Only a select few species have the ability to manipulate their environment to make a suitable home. Humans are one such species, beavers are another. They are ecological engineers, meaning they build and create habitat for many species. They are a keystone species that creates unique opportunities for biodiversity on the landscape. They also tend to consume all the resources in an area until they are forced to move on, again, kinda like people. Not only are they ecologically important, but they are responsible for North America’s original economic prosperity. Beaver fur was one of the reasons for the expansion westward across North America. We owe this little creature a great deal, from habitat creation to our original economy. Bill Abercrombie came on to discuss the full range of their importance.
Imagine traveling from Canada to Argentina every year, and back again. Sounds kinda nice actually, only you need to travel using only the tools nature gave you. Even with wings this is a tremendous task. Wildlife biologist, Richard Krikun and the Executive Director of the Boreal Center for Bird Conservation (BCBC), Patti Campsall joined me to discuss the creatures that make that journey. We discussed the tool kit used to capture population numbers and the science behind it. How far do they travel, how long do they live, where do they live, how do we measure them, how do we catch them, how can we better manage the forest to maximize bird habitat, and much more.
When it comes to a career path, a lot of people, including myself, spend their lives following societal norms. We want more money, more prestige, more whatever. Michelle is in love with wildfire fighting, and she knows it. After a full career in wildfire management, she recognized that she was happier and more fulfilled when she was back on the front lines, where she had started her career. Now, she leads a 20 person unit crew stomping out flames all season long. The grit and adrenaline of the line just kept on calling her home. We discussed her career path, resistance, leadership techniques, building a cohesive team you can trust, and much more. This episode is not strictly based on environmental sciences, but it is relevant nonetheless.
There is no better way to connect with nature than to immerse oneself completely into the wilderness and unplug from the hustle of modern society. Arguably, one of the best ways to accomplish complete immersion is to take up bowhunting. Some of you may scoff at the notion of needing to kill something to connect, however, what other activity forces you to endure all that nature has to offer for days or even weeks on end while hiding one's existence from all other living creatures. Remaining completely still and quite for entire days, through the cold and wet with nothing but your thoughts and the wild to keep you company. Hunting allows you the opportunity to notice things about nature that go unnoticed by most everyone else. Brent Watson is a lifelong hunter and the President of the Alberta Bowhunters Association. He came on to discuss the importance of hunting in his life and to society, as well as the emotions that come with the experience.
Arctic Grayling and Bull Trout are two species of fish that are of special concern in Alberta. Both have had tough times recently due to human impacts on their environment. Poor water crossings, over fishing, climate change, and sedimentation has all had a degrading cumulative impact on population numbers. Both fish are native to the waters and can be conserved if proper steps are taken. Luckily, groups like the Alberta Conservation Association have people like Mike Rodtka, the fish loving angler and researcher, to take up the cause and help ensure this resource is on the landscape for future generations to enjoy. We had a great conversation around these beautiful fish. We discussed habitat, life cycle, how fun they are to catch, factors affecting population decline, societal values and a great deal more.
In the past, forest management was done with mainly wood fiber in mind. Today we practice a much richer and dynamic approach to forest management. By taking into consideration all forest values we can achieve a more harmonious and truly sustainable system. Values such as soil and water quality, wildlife habitat and conservation, wood fiber and socio-economic impacts all play a role in the decision matrix that is sustainable forest management. In the book “Learning From The Landscape” Robert Bott and Robert Udell have described the making of such a system of management. The book describes the establishment of “model” forests in which we today design our forest management plans. These forests where meant to be a place where research could take place in order to inform best practices. Robert Bott and myself discussed the book and its many topics.
February 7, 2009 is known in Australia as Black Saturday. Close to 400 wildfires started that day, 173 people died and many homes and communities were lost. Preceding these fires was an unprecedented 8 year drought that created one of the most volatile and dangerous wildfire situations on record. Harold Larson is a Canadian wildland firefighter that was working his first summer in Australia when the fires happened. In his book “Fire In The Eucalypts” he describes everything from his arrival, training, fire fighting techniques and tactics, the climatic situation, the relationships he built, and his narrow escape from death on Black Saturday. We discussed his book and how we might learn from those fires.
We all live in a world with finite resources. With a growing population, we need to start being more resourceful and efficient. There is strain on both the agricultural and energy systems to keep up with demand in a sustainable way. We, as individuals, can help relieve that strain by being responsible for our own consumption, or at least a small part of it. Whether you have a garden, collect your own water, or create your own energy, every little bit of pressure we take off helps to improve our lives and our planet. Permaculture is a means by which to live sustainably and to be responsible for your own piece of the pie. Kurtis has made it his goal to help people by teaching or helping others make their own property more sustainable.
The importance of understanding where we have been so we do not make the same mistakes twice can not be understated. Understanding the role resources like coal and fossil fuels played in our societies development and prosperity help us to comprehend where we would be without them, likely burning whale fat in our lamps and heating ourselves with wood stoves riding horses and spending most of our time trying to feed ourselves. At the same time we see the consequences of our decisions through changing climates, decreases in biodiversity and historical photos that depict where a mountain once stood but now there is only a mine. History forces us to recognize the impacts of our decisions. Liza is a professor at the University of Alberta where she teaches environmental history. Topics discussed: history of coal in Canada, the year without a summer, reclamation, the Mountain Legacy Project, missing mountains, national parks, environmental consciousness, pipelines, multiple use values, never cry wolf.
What happens to wood after it has served its purpose. Construction and demolition material, sawdust, wood chips, pallets, old furniture, harvest residues, all gets either thrown into a landfill or burned. Wood waste is a resource just like anything else and we can utilize that resource to create a number of products that can assist in climate change mitigation and increase sustainability. Wood waste can be used to create ethanol, biochar, wood pellets, it can be re-purposed like barn wood and put back into our homes, or even broken down into its component parts and re-engineered into a new wood product to be sold on the market. The potential exists to make a greener economy when it comes to wood waste, we just have to take the first steps. Jim Donaldson is one person trying to promote wood waste recycling in Canada. He is trying to build a community of like minded people and companies to build a sustainable wood-waste recycling industry that will be good for the environment and the economy, win-win.
Stuck! Stranded in the bush with no radio or cell coverage. What do you do? Where to begin? Shelter? Fire? Food? Water? Kelly Harlton is an expert in bushcraft and primitive skills. He has been teaching himself, and others, all he can about the boreal forest and how to "survive" in it for decades. From fire and shelter building, water and food acquisition to how to make tools and clothes from your surroundings, he knows so much. On this episode we focused on the most important and basic survival skills. How to survive up to 72 hours in the bush, statistics say that is probably the longest you will have to wait. We focused on Fire, Water and Shelter. I cant wait to have him on again to talk in detail about finding food and an infinite number of other subjects. The knowledge is deep with this one.